570 – Muhammad was born in Mecca
594 – Muhammad became the manager of the business of Lady Khadija.
595 – Muhammad married Hadrat Khadija.
610 – Muhammad had a religious experience on Mount Hira.
613 – Persians capture Damascus and Antioch
614 – Persians sack Jerusalem
615 – Muhammad invited the Hashimites to adopt Islam.
615 – Persecution of Muslims by the Quaraish in Mecca intensified and a group of Muslims leave for Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia).
621 – Abu Jahl became leader of a mounting opposition to Muslims in Mecca and organized a boycott of merchants in Mohammad’s clan, the Hashim.
622 – About 75 converts from Medina took the two
Pledges of al-Aqaba, professing to Islam and to protect Muhammad from all danger.
622 – The Hijra: emigration of Muhammad and his followers to Yathrib (now: Madinat al-Nabi, “the city of the Prophet,” or simply, al-Madina). Foundation of the first Islamic community; social and economic reforms. Starting point of the Islamic calendar.
624 – Muhammad broke with his Jewish supporters because they refused to recognize him as a prophet and adopt Islam. He chose now to emphasize the Arabness
of the new religion, and has his followers face Mecca when praying instead of Jerusalem. In the end, all the Jews were either banished or executed.
624 – Battle of Badr, Muhammad and his followers defeated an army from Mecca. Muhammad’s chief rival in Mecca, Abu Jahl, was executed. This battle was
Mohammed’s first real victory. He owed it chiefly to the Ansar. The Ansar, or Medina champions, indeed might be rated the real founders of Islam.
627 – Meccan leader Abu Sufyan laid siege to Muhammad’s forces in Medina during the battle of the Trench. He was unsuccessful. Muhammad suspected the Banu Quraiza Jews of helping the Meccans. The men, six hundred in number, had their hands bound behind their backs and were confined in one of their immense houses, where they passed the night in reciting psalms and in prayer. The next morning Mohammed went to the marketplace and ordered deep
trenches to be made. The men were led to the brink, one by one, with their hands tied behind their backs, their heads were hewn with sabers, and they were thrown into the pits. The slaughter lasted the whole day and was carried on by torchlight.
630 – An army of 30,000 Muslims marched on Mecca which surrendered.
632: Death of Muhammad. His father-in-law, AbuBakr, and Umar devised a system to allow Islam to sustain religious and political stability. Accepting the name of caliph (“deputy of the Prophet”), Abu-Bakr begins a military exhibition to enforce the caliph’s authority over Arabian followers of Muhammad. AbuBakr then moved northward, defeating Byzantine and Persian forces. Abu-Bakr died two years later and Umar succeeded him as the second caliph, launching a new campaign against the neighboring empires.

633 – Battle of Yamama. It is said that the 70 Muslims who had memorized the Quran were killed in the battle, including Salim. He was one of the few authorized to teach it while Muhammad lived. At Umar’s insistence, Abu Bakr ordered the collection of the scattered pieces of the Quran into one copy, which has since been lost.
633 – Muslims conquer Syria and Iraq.
634 – Victory against the Byzantines in Palestine (Ajnadayn).
634-644 – Umar reigns as the second caliph. The Muslims subjugate Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia and Persia. Garrisons are established in the conquered lands, and the Muslim rulers begin to take control of financial organisation.
635 – Muslims begin the conquest of Persia and Syria
635 – Arab Muslims capture the city of Damascus
636-637 – Arab domination of Syria
637 – Arabs occupy Ctesiphon
637 – Jerusalem falls to Muslim forces. The Umayyad Caliphs commission the construction of the al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock. The Mosque was completed in 688, the Dome in 692.
638 – Caliph Umar I enters Jerusalem
639 – Muslims conquer Egypt and Persia
641 – Islam spreads into Egypt
641 – Muslims conquer Alexandria
649 – Muawiya I leads raid against Cyprus sacking the capital Salamis-Constantia
652 – Sicily is attacked by Muslims
653 – Quran (or Koran – 114 suras) compiled by Uthman, the third caliph (reign 644 to 656)
653 – Muawiya I leads raid against Rhodes
654 – Muawiya I conquers Cyprus
655 – Battle of the Masts
661 Muawiya moves capital from Mecca to Damascus

662 – Egypt falls to the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates
667 – Sicily is attacked by Muslims; Arabs occupy Chalcedon.
668 – First siege of Constantinople
669 – Muslim conquest reaches Morocco
672 – Muslims capture the island of Rhodes
674 – Arab conquest reaches Indus River
698 – Muslims capture Carthage
700 – Muslims raid Island of Sicily
711 – Muslims conquest of Sindh in Afghanistan
711 – Battle of Guadalate
712 – Conquest of Andulusia
715 – Muslim conquest of Spain
716 – Muslims captured Lisbon
717 – Cordova becomes capital of Andalusia (Spain); second siege of Constantinople.
719 – Muslims attack Septimania in Southern France
721 – Muslims cross the Pyrenees
722 – Battle of Covadonga First defeat of Muslims by Christians
724 – Muslims raid southern France and capture Carcassone and Nimes
725 – Muslim forces occupy Nimes, France
730 – Muslim forces occupy Narbonne and Avignon

732 – Battle of Tours (Christian Victory) – With perhaps 1,500 soldiers, Charles Martel halts a Muslim force of around 40,000 to 60,000 cavalry under Abd elRahman Al Ghafiqi. Muslims call it Balat al-Shuhada, the Highway of Martyrs, and treat it as a minor engagement.
735 – Muslim invaders capture Arles
750 – Abbasids move capital to Baghdad (see map)
756 – The Emirate of Cordova is established
759 – Pippin III ends Muslim incursions in France
792 – Hisham I calls for a Jihad Thousands heed his call to cross the Pyrenees to subjugate France. Many cities are destroyed
800 – North Africa falls under the rule of the Aghlabi dynasty of Tunis.
801 – Vikings begin selling slaves to Muslims.
813 – Muslims attack the Civi Vecchia near Rome
816 – The Moors support the Basques against the Franks
827 – Sicily is invaded by Muslims
831 – Muslims capture Palermo and make it their capital
838 – Muslim raiders sack Marseille
841 – Muslim forces capture Bari (in Italy)
846 – Muslim raiders attack areas near Ostia and Rome. Some enter Rome and damage the Churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. The Leonine Wall is built to discourage further Attacks.
849 – Battle of Ostia (Christian Victory)
850 – Perfectus, a Christian priest in Muslim Cordova is executed; the first of many.
851 – Young Christians are executed for insulting the Prophet Muhammed
858 – Muslim raiders attack Constantinople
859 – Muslim invaders capture Castrogiovanni slaughtering several thousands
868 – The Sattarid dynasty extended Muslim control throughout most of Persia.
869 – Arabs capture the island of Malta
870 – Muslim invaders capture Syracuse
876 – Muslims pillage Campagna in Italy
879 – The Seljuk Empire unites Mesopotamia and a large portion of Persia
884 – Muslims invading Italy burn the monastery of Monte Cassino to the ground
900 – The Fatimid Dynasty assumes control of Egypt
902 – The Muslim conquest of Sicily is completed when the Christian city of Toorminia is captured
909 – Sicily comes under control of the Fatimids
909 – The Fatimid Dynasty assumes control of Egypt
909 – Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy cutting off passage between the two countries

911 – Muslims control all the passes in the Alps between France and Italy
920 – Muslim forces cross the Pyrenees, enter Gascony and reach as far as the gates of Toulouse
972 – The Fatimids of Egypt conquer North Africa
981 – Ramiro III, king of Leon, is defeated at Rueda
985 – Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir sacks Barcelona
994 – The monastery of Monte Cassino is destroyed a second time by Arabs
997 – Under the leadership of Almanzar, Muslim forces march out of the city of Cordova and head north to capture Christian lands.
997 – Muslim forces burn Compostela to the ground
1004 – Arab raiders sack the Italian city of Pisa
1009 – The Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem is destroyed by Muslim armies
1009 – Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah orders the Holy Sepulcher and all Christian buildings in Jerusalem be destroyed
1012 – Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah orders the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship in his lands
1012 – Berber forces capture Cordova and order that half the population be executed
1013 – Jews expelled from the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova, then ruled by Sulaimann.
1015 – Arab Muslim forces conquer Sardinia
1023 – Muslims expel the Berber rulers from Cordova and install Abd er-Rahman V as caliph.
1038 – The Seljuk Turks become established in Persia.
1042 – The rise of the Seljuk Turks begins.
1055 – Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad.
1056 – The Almoravid (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power.
1064 – The Seljuk Turks conquer Christian Armenia
1070 – Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem and begin persecuting Christian Pilgrims
10711085 – Seljuk Turks conquer most of Syria and Palestine
1071 – Battle of Manzikert
1073 – Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara
1078 – Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea
1084 – Seljuk Turks conquer Antioch
1086 – Battle of Zallaca – Spanish forces defeated by the Moors and their Berber allies.
1088 – Patzinak Turks begin forming settlements between the Danube and the Balkans
1090 – Granada captured by Yusuf Ibn Tashfin
1091 – Cordova is captured by the Almoravids


1095 – First Crusade. After 450 years of bloodshed, Pope Urban II called upon the kings of Christendom to send a military expedition to regain the Holy Lands, which had been taken by the Muslim conquest of the Levant 1.
At the same time, the Byzantine emperor Alexis I (1081 to 1118) had asked Urban II for help against the invading Turks. Jerusalem was re-captured in 1099.Islam would not suffer a naval defeat by the Europeans until the battle of Lepanto in 1571. and other sources.

1 Levant: the areas around the eastern Mediterranean, including Asia Minor, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq, and Iran.